Physical-Chemical Urine Analysis with Sediment

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280,00 rsd

Obrtno Vreme

2h

Uzorkovanje

Collecting Urine

Kategorija

Urine analysis

Physical-chemical urine analysis with sediment is a standard laboratory test conducted for diagnostic, preventive, and monitoring purposes. This analysis provides insights into various urine parameters, including its color, clarity, specific gravity, pH value, as well as the presence of different chemical components and cells. If you are considering scheduling this analysis at IntroLab laboratory in Belgrade, this text will provide you with all the necessary information regarding preparation, execution, and result interpretation.

What does the physical-chemical analysis of urine with sediment entail?

The physical and chemical analysis of urine with sediment encompasses the examination of urine’s physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. This comprehensive analysis is divided into two main parts:

Physical and chemical examination of urine

This foundational diagnostic test provides crucial insights into the health of the urinary system and other systemic conditions of the body.

  • Color of Urine: Normally ranging from light to dark yellow, depending on hydration levels. Unusual urine colors like red, green, blue, dark brown, or black could indicate health issues or the ingestion of certain medications or foods.
  • Clarity of Urine: Urine is typically clear. Cloudiness or turbidity may suggest infections, the presence of crystals, proteins, or other substances.
  • Specific Gravity of Urine: This measures the concentration of substances in the urine. It fluctuates with fluid and salt intake and can signal kidney issues if abnormal.
  • Urine pH: The pH level of urine typically spans from 4.5 to 8.0, influenced by diet and metabolism. A high pH may point to urinary infections, whereas a low pH could indicate metabolic acidosis.
  • Presence of Glucose: Normally absent in urine, glucose detection often signifies diabetes or other metabolic imbalances.
  • Presence of Proteins: Protein traces can appear in urine post strenuous physical exertion. Persistent presence, however, may be indicative of kidney diseases.
  • Presence of Ketones: Ketones, the byproducts of fat metabolism, in urine signal conditions like diabetes, prolonged fasting, or excessive alcohol intake.
  • Presence of Bilirubin and Urobilinogen: Bilirubin, stemming from hemoglobin breakdown, indicates liver or gallbladder issues when present in urine. Urobilinogen, a further breakdown product of bilirubin, is usually found in minor amounts. Elevated levels can suggest liver damage or increased red blood cell destruction.
  • Presence of Nitrites: Nitrites in urine typically suggest bacterial infections in the urinary tract.

Microscopic examination of urine (urine sediment)

The microscopic examination of urine sediment is a crucial part of urinary analysis, offering valuable insights into the patient’s health. This stage of the analysis involves examining various components present in the urine sediment, including:

  • Cells: There are three primary types of cells found in urine – erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and epithelial cells. An increased count of erythrocytes can signal injuries or diseases of the kidneys, bladder, or urethra. Elevated levels of leukocytes suggest infections or inflammation in the urinary system. While epithelial cells are normally shed from the urinary tract, their excessive presence can hint at tissue damage or potential tumors.
  • Casts: Casts are cylindrical protein structures formed within the nephrons, the kidney’s functional units. Various types of casts exist (like hyaline, granular, and erythrocytic), and their increased presence often points to kidney diseases.
  • Crystals: Crystals in urine occur when metabolic products are excreted and start crystallizing. Numerous crystal types exist, each potentially indicating different health conditions. For instance, oxalate crystals may suggest kidney stones, whereas cystine crystals could indicate cystinuria, a rare genetic disorder.
  • Bacteria, Fungi, and Parasites: The detection of these microorganisms in urine typically indicates a urinary system infection. For example, Escherichia coli is a common cause of urinary tract infections.

When is the physical and chemical urine analysis with sediment indicated?

This test is frequently included in routine health examinations but may also be advised for patients showing symptoms such as discomfort while urinating, changes in the frequency or color of urination, unusual urine odor, pain in the lower back or sides, or when there is a suspicion of specific medical conditions.

Guidelines for sample collection

The optimal time for urine collection is in the morning, as the first urine of the day is typically more concentrated and richer in metabolic products, thereby providing a more representative sample. The procedure involves a “midstream catch,” where the initial urine is passed into the toilet, and then the middle portion of the stream is collected in a sterile container. This technique helps minimize contamination from bacteria in the urinary tract.

Diet and fluid intake before the test

There are no strict dietary restrictions required prior to the test. However, it is recommended to avoid excessive drinking of fluids right before the test to prevent urine dilution. Patients should also avoid foods and medications known to alter the urine’s color, such as beets, blueberries, and certain pharmaceuticals.

Proper storage and transportation of the urine sample

Ensuring the correct storage and transportation of the urine sample is essential, as these factors significantly affect the accuracy of the test results. It’s important to deliver the urine sample to the laboratory as quickly as possible. If the urine is kept at room temperature, the analysis should be performed within 2 hours of collection. If immediate delivery is not feasible, the urine can be kept in the refrigerator (at a temperature between 2 and 8°C) for a maximum of 6-8 hours.

Delays in processing the urine sample can lead to inaccurate results for various reasons:

  • Cellular Breakdown: If urine is stored for too long, both leukocytes (white blood cells) and erythrocytes (red blood cells) can break down. This breakdown can result in a reduced concentration of these cells in the sample, which may affect the reliability of the results.
  • Bacterial Growth: Bacteria present in the urine sample can proliferate rapidly if the sample is left at room temperature. This can lead to an artificially high bacterial count.
  • Glucose Degradation: Bacteria in the urine can metabolize glucose. Extended storage can decrease the glucose level in the sample, potentially skewing the analysis results.
  • pH Alterations: The decomposition of urea by bacteria produces ammonia, which can raise the pH of the urine. This increase in pH can change the crystal formation in the urine and impact the detection of certain substances.

Specialized analyses and variations

Beyond the standard physical-chemical analysis of urine with sediment, there are additional specialized urine tests available. These include microbiological urine analysis (urine culture), drug screening tests, urine pregnancy tests, and tests to detect specific proteins or hormones.

Vrsta uzorka i vreme kada se uzima uzorak

Uzorak: Urine

Obrtno vreme: 2h

Priprema: No specific preparation is required for these urine analyses.

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